Dual-Enrollment: a Head Start on College or Empty Credentialing?

Shortly after I moved to North Carolina in 2015, I learned about a dual-enrollment program for students to attend high school and Wake Technical Community College simultaneously. At the time, I was a homeschooled rising junior deciding among my options for the future, and I was eager to jump on board if it meant I could get college credit early—and tuition-free.

The dual-enrollment program, called Career and College Promise (CCP), is designed to enable eligible North Carolina high school students to earn transferrable college credit that will count toward their future degree. There is no cap on credits a student can take, so a CCP student can earn as many as he is able to, up to an entire associate degree (while keeping up with his high school classes). CCP statistics show that I was not alone in utilizing this program: in the 2013-2014 fiscal year, there were 11,389 students enrolled in the program across the state.

A CCP advisor helped me choose the courses I would need to transfer to the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill for my planned degree, a double major in economics and political science. Overall, the advising experience was helpful because I was provided with everything I needed to know to transfer the credits I earned through CCP at Wake Tech to a four-year university.

Additionally, the UNC system makes it easy for students to know which classes will transfer and which will not. The Comprehensive Articulation Agreement between the UNC and North Carolina Community College System guarantees that earning a community college associate degree allows students to transfer to a UNC school as a junior. If you don’t have an associate degree, much of the credit you accumulate is also guaranteed to transfer, assuring me that the classes I was taking at Wake Tech would be able to transfer.

It was not until I actually started the classes at Wake Tech, however, that I found my college classes lacked the academic rigor I had in my high school courses. Wake Tech’s classes were simply not as challenging as I expected—or hoped—them to be.

One example of a less-than-rigorous course was an online criminal justice class with an instructor whose spelling was so poor that I often lost points on quizzes and tests because I could not understand what he was trying to say. I also had to take a class in which I was taught how to get around the 138-acre campus, how to find other college’s websites, how to study, how to take a test, and other rudimentary skills.  The class, College Transfer Success, is a requirement for students earning an associate degree—think freshman orientation, except for an entire semester.

Even worse, some classes were highly politicized, especially my first English class, “Writing and Inquiry.” Much of the time in that class was devoted to discussing current political issues. Very little time was spent on writing; instead, the majority of the time we spent reading and discussing partisan drivel. Readings included Barbara Ehrenreich’s Nickel and Dimed, which promoted the idea that extensive government regulation is necessary to “help the poor” and an essay glorifying the morality of theft from the rich by the poor. No alternate views to these governmental expansionist and moral relativist perspectives were presented as I had hoped. On top of the readings, five class meetings were dedicated to lectures on why I should be a feminist—not exactly the intellectual stimulation that I had hoped for in a college course.

Nor was that English class unique in its political bent. I also had an American literature class that was at best subjective, and at worst fallacious. At times, it seemed as if the teacher’s main intention was to criticize capitalism. For example, the teacher suggested that capitalism, specifically industrialization and the reprehensible behavior of robber barons, was to blame for a dramatic decline in the standard of living for Americans in the early 1900s. His claim was clearly false; the early 1900s—and almost the entire time the United States has been in existence—featured dramatic rises in the standard of living that are at least in part attributable to capitalism. The only time incomes fell for a considerable period in the 20th century was in the 1930s, which was long after the Industrial Revolution and Robber Baron eras of the late 19th century.

Had these classes simply matched—not even exceeded—the rigor of classes I took in the high school home school program, I would have been much better off. I also would have been better served by dedicating more time and focus on my high school classes, but earning college credit was higher on my list of priorities. I wonder how much other students are challenged at Wake Tech. If the quality is not kept high, then it becomes a credential mill rather than an educational program.

Still, despite its quality drawbacks, CCP sped up my degree completion and saved me money. I earned 39 credits over the course of six semesters and over half of the cost of an associate degree. Had I paid for those classes, it would have cost me over $4,000.

Of course, CCP is no “free lunch.” The cost to the state is quite expensive: over $85 million was allotted to the community college system to cover dual-enrollment students for the 2015-2016 fiscal year. For the last available numbers in 2013-2014, just barely above $5,000 was allocated to community colleges for each CCP student.

When looking at other states, the data shows that dual-enrollment programs tend to vary widely. High school districts shoulder the financial burden in Florida. School districts pay the tab in Ohio as well, but its dual-enrollment program runs from grades 7-12 instead of just for high school. A combination of parents and school districts pay for dual-enrollment tuition in Pennsylvania. The state covers the cost of tuition for students in Oregon.

I also would have been better served by dedicating more time and focus on my high school classes, but earning college credit was higher on my list of priorities.

Aside from the financial and credentialing advantages, CCP also filled a gap in my homeschooling experiences. I was not alone in this regard; at times, it appeared as though homeschooled students like myself were a majority of those enrolled in CCP courses. In our homeschooling classes, we learned on our own. Taking classes online at home deprived us of the opportunity to have actual discussions with classmates or to learn the material hands-on. The ability to have a teacher to talk to, have classmates to study with, or to be involved in classroom activities should not be discounted.

My Wake Tech experience also broadened my education beyond academics by giving me the opportunity to serve as president of the campus Young Americans for Liberty chapter. I could not have acquired the same public speaking experience without participating in YAL, nor could I have had the same interactions with the faculty.

For me, CCP at Wake Tech was a much-needed introduction to the “college life.” If the analogy that students going from high school to college feel like they are jumping into the deep end of a pool rings true, then for a homeschooled student, it can seem like jumping into Lake Michigan.

Even with all its flaws, Wake Tech’s CCP program served me well. I got what I wanted: a head start on a degree while lessening the debt load I would carry in the future, along with a broadening social experience. I hope that its flaws can be fixed; college courses should challenge students, rather than giving them easy academic credit.

  • hrhdhd

    “High school districts shoulder the financial burden in Florida.” Er, no, they don’t. Until recently, our CC got _no_ money for instructing DE students, while the K-12 system kept all of the money that they received for _not_ instructing many of their students while they are at our CC. We now get a bit of money, but it’s not the full cost of instruction.

    • Glen_S_McGhee_FHEAP

      Interesting issue — who funds DE? Florida’s school districts cover the cost of high school instructors teaching DE (as the link suggests), but the state helps out. The funding formula has changed over time, so the exact funding mechanism varies. As for high school students attending local CC’s, I don’t know how this works — I would guess that they pay tuition IF they don’t register with the high school first.

      • yankeetransplant

        There are lots of different ways to dual enroll in Florida. High school kids can earn credit from their local community college through courses taught at their high school – but the instructors, even though high school teachers, have to meet the criteria set out by the community college, and have the community college’s approval. In our area, this means they must have at least a master’s degree. High school kids can also go to their local community college OR a four-year institution as dual-enrolled students. They can also dual-enroll into online classes offered by their local community college or 4-year institution. One of my children exercised all of these options in the same school year, and although he attended a private high school, all of the courses were free to us. There’s no tuition payment by the family/student involved.

        • Glen_S_McGhee_FHEAP

          Were you able to verify the teaching credentials for DE instructors? Did they have 18 graduate hours in the discipline? Or were they OOF (out-of-field)?

          Originally the SOS (Statement of Standards) forwarded by CC presidents (see regulation link) included requirements in the new regulation that DE “instructors, even though high school teachers, have to meet the criteria set out by the community college, and have the community college’s approval” because, for decades, it was not happening. I found that about 1/3 of those teaching DE in my district did not meet the accreditation requirements of those teaching at the college level. The college didn’t even know who they were, until recently.
          http://www.fldoe.org/schools/higher-ed/fl-college-system/academic-student-affairs/dual-enrollment.stml

          When the SOS became a statute, the oversight provision was gutted, leaving the requirements unenforced. I hope that I don’t have to tell you what this means, especially if you are a high school principal trying to staff DE classes.

          It is only in this context that HLC’s courageous initiative makes sense — there is a real problem out there, one that the other regional bodies are ignoring.

  • Glen_S_McGhee_FHEAP

    Part of the problem with rigor is that not all DE instructors meet minimum accreditation standards. This is especially an issue for high school teachers, and HLC is heroically meeting the challenge of addressing this long standing problem.
    https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/11/27/institutions-grapple-accreditors-changes-dual-credit-instruction

    The question is: Why HLC is the only accreditor taking on this problem, while other regional accreditors are not? Already, the deadline for compliance was pushed back, and now waivers are being issued. But it also shines a bright spot-light on deficiencies with the peer-review system of accreditation since the 1992 amendments to the HEA, especially among sectors that lag educationally.

  • Barefoot

    The issue of empty credentialing and ideological classes is a two-edged sword. If post-transfer classes at a 4-year university offer nonideological, rigorous opportunities, then taking the classes at CC can be a mistake.

    But…is freshman comp really that different at most 4-year schools? If not, better to take it for free and get it out of the way to make the most of the university time you have to pay for.

  • redweather

    Having sent two children to college and listened to what they had to say about their professors, I can assure you that faculty using their classrooms as a soapbox is not confined to liberals.

    As for the quality of the tuition at Wake Tech, it appears that everyone who applies for admission gets in. From the website: “The placement test does not determine whether you can attend Wake Tech; it lets us know your skill levels. The test determines whether you will start with college-level credit courses or be required to complete developmental course(s) before starting college-level credit courses.”

    • bdavi52

      I’d be surprised if it were so confined.
      But I’m equally surprised they found Conservatives in their faculty. What were they studying?

  • Glen_S_McGhee_FHEAP

    College Board has just released a white paper on dual enrollment, apparently alarmed by the potential for quality problems.
    https://secure-media.collegeboard.org/pdf/research/college-credit-high-school-working-group-report.pdf

    • redweather

      I hardly think the College Board can be considered objective here since the greatest threat posed by DE is to the College Board’s Advanced Placement classes.

      • Glen_S_McGhee_FHEAP

        Of course. Have you looked at the white paper? The participants are listed at the end.

        • redweather

          I have.

          • Glen_S_McGhee_FHEAP

            There is a notable absence, I thought, from the list of attendees; a total lack of representing those most interested in (and assigned to be by federal law) educational quality — accreditors. Why leave out those most interested in post-secondary quality?

          • redweather

            What is also worth noting is that a high percentage of students who enroll in AP classes never do well enough on the exam to earn college credit. And yet the College Board in this report’s conclusion opines that ” there is also significant concern about whether all students are receiving the high-quality instruction and outcomes that CCHS
            programs are supposed to deliver.” The same can be said for AP.

  • bdavi52

    The answer, of course, is Dual Enrollment Head Start Programs are nothing but empty credentialing, how could it be otherwise?

    If a double-enrolled HS/College student can successfully ‘master’ a dual & parallel curriculum it proves only that the so-called College Portion is designed only to be a high school extension/equivalent. It constrains and constricts what should be collegiate-quality courses such that un-graduated HS sophomores and juniors can handle the work. This cheats both student & school (and, most definitely, shortchanges the discipline). The program is not designed to foster learning, rather it is designed to increase throughput & asset efficiency.

    As Mr. Warta described it, what he learned in this cheap academic dunk tank was not even up to HS standards. But what it did do was save him money (at the expense of the State) and allowed him to short-cut (short circuit?!) his education. Kinda like finding a coupon in the paper that can be redeemed for 4 semesters of academic credit. Yes, you get the credit; yes you save the money; and, sadly, yes you can graduate with a so-called College degree having learned 4 semesters LESS than you otherwise would.

    But such criticism is also founded on the increasingly mistaken belief that 8 semesters of College really is 8 semesters of College. It’s not (at least not in most places for most students). When we graduate hundreds of thousands of students every year who struggle to read, write, and critically think…..perhaps finding that discount coupon is great deal! It saves the time otherwise spent on throw-away nonsense.