The Uncertain Future of Coding Boot Camps

Students are enrolling in coding “boot camps” at record rates, with the number of graduates increasing from about 2,200 in 2013 to an estimated 23,000 in 2017. However, the booming popularity of coding schools was not enough to prevent two prominent ones, Dev Bootcamp and The Iron Yard, from closing down recently.

Coding boot camps were first established in 2012 to intensively train computer programmers in as little as twelve weeks (with the average cost of attendance being $12,000). Their curriculums focus on in-demand technologies, including programming languages such as Java, Ruby on Rails, and Python. Schools also claim that students have the opportunity to network with CEOs of local tech companies. In a short five years, about 95 full-time coding schools have opened their doors to those seeking to add a competitive edge to their resume.

What could explain the seemingly paradoxical success and failure of coding schools? Do the closures merely indicate that inefficient firms are being forced out of a competitive market, a common dynamic in nascent industries? Or are they symptomatic of a business model losing its momentum?

The answers to those questions are unclear. It may be that, despite the closure of one or two schools, the coding school industry will continue to boom and grow.

Alana Dunagan of the Clayton Christensen Institute, a non-profit that studies disruptive innovation, told the Martin Center that such an industry shake-out in a rapidly growing industry is to be expected. She believes that, overall, the coding boot camp business-model will experience growth. Ultimately, she expects that their continued expansion “will change the way colleges compete.”

Dunagan may be right that the coding academies will enjoy continued growth—if one believes the claims of coding academies and their proponents. Certainly, there is a high demand for programmers, even apart from the most competitive and specialized jobs in Silicon Valley. Today, programmers are needed outside of the tech industry, in such disparate fields as graphic design, medical research, and data analysis.

Additionally, coding boot camps have become a $266 million industry. They boast high success rates and advertise that students should expect an average salary increase of about $26,000 after graduation—with some schools claiming that graduates earn an average annual salary between $91,000 and $105,000.

Furthermore, according to a 2016 study by Course Report, a research organization that analyzes coding schools, 89 percent of boot camp graduates placed a job 120 or more days after graduation; 73 percent reported utilizing the skills they learned at boot camp in their new jobs (however, some question the reliability of these statistics as they are self-reported by the schools themselves and little outside research is done to ensure accuracy).

Moreover, some start-up tech companies have recruited coding school graduates with success. In a Martin Center interview, Nick Jordan, CEO of a Durham-based tech company called Smashing Boxes, said, “we’ve had a lot of success with hiring people from code schools.”

Jordan emphasized that the most important characteristic in applicants is the experience, passion, and personal integrity they bring to the table. “It’s just as much about mindset and attitude as about … training,” says Jordan. Accordingly, Smashing Boxes has hired individuals from a wide variety of backgrounds, including computer science majors and even those who are self-taught in coding and have no official certification.

Still, it may be too soon to tell whether coding schools really pose a possible alternative to colleges and universities. Although some, including Dunagan, suggest that coding schools would be a major disruptive force in higher education, there is evidence that this may not be the case.

For one thing, high-end tech companies tend to avoid coding school graduates. According to a 2016 Bloomberg article titled “Want a Job in Silicon Valley? Keep Away From Coding Schools,” boot camp graduates lack important skills and struggle to find a job. Indeed, many companies “automatically disqualify coding school grads.”

Some major hi-tech employers confirm Bloomberg’s negative assessment. According to Google’s director of education and university relations, Maggie Johnson, boot camp students are not sufficiently trained in software engineering to work at Google. Additionally, a spokeswoman for Cisco flatly stated “we generally don’t hire from coding schools.”

In North Carolina, Tobias Dengel, a CEO of a mobile application development company called Willow Tree, admitted to the Triangle Business Journal that his business never hired anyone from The Iron Yard (which had a campus in Durham)—despite having moved to the state partly because of the presence of coding schools and needing to fill 98 positions. Dengel explained that “the amount of time they try to teach people to code – it’s just not enough. It’s not deep enough for the type of stuff we do.”

Computer science majors, on the other hand, may offer the broad knowledge and intensive training over a longer period that employers desire. And their numbers are rising: for example, the number of computer science degrees conferred in the University of North Carolina System has steadily been increasing for the past ten academic years, from 892 degrees awarded in 2007 to 2,250 awarded in 2016. Such a dramatic increase in degrees conferred suggests that the proliferation of coding schools hasn’t diminished the popularity of traditional four-year degrees. Rather, it may be that coding schools helped fill a temporary “skills gap” — one that is slowly closing as colleges gradually respond to the demands of the labor market.

It is uncertain whether the need for coding boot camps will decrease as people with computer science degrees continue to flood the workforce. Even if university-trained computer professionals remain the first choice of most employers, a narrower sector of the market may find boot camps useful. Given that technology is constantly changing, coding schools could help seasoned professionals retool and update their skills. Such a niche industry, however, would hardly be large enough to change the overall landscape of higher education.

Ultimately, only time will tell whether coding boot camps level a force disruptive enough to make colleges and universities reevaluate how they compete for students. Or whether they will survive at all.

  • Glen_S_McGhee_FHEAP

    Hiring in IT is far too complex to address in such a short article.

    For example, how do admissions criteria “pass through” to impact job placement?
    Without understanding these dynamics, even partially, we have an incomplete picture of what is going on.
    https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2017/08/29/essay-how-coding-boot-camps-are-add-college-degree

    In terms of hiring overall, internships and prior work experience were top factors for recruiters. Hiring is — and has been — a black box, especially in IT, and the role of credentials, which is just one of the many factors feeding the complexity, is only vaguely understood. And it could be changing so rapidly that we may never fully understand it.

  • Mike

    Speaking as someone who’s done a lot of engineering hiring and interviews at Silicon Valley companies — coding bootcamps regularly place graduates at top firms. Even your top-tier engineering firms (Google & Facebook probably have the best reputation for pure software engineering at the moment) will have a handful. That’s not particularly common, though, and the bulk of software engineers at both of those companies and other comparable ones have CS degrees.

    What’s very common is for graduates of those schools to get immediate offers at second-tier companies who are still very desperate for warm bodies that aren’t afraid to code, and this is actually a great outcome for the graduates of those schools. They’d prefer to have all CS grads from Harvard and Stanford, but it turns out those are a very limited commodity.

    I don’t see how it could possibly be a fad, given the insane undersupply of engineers. When SV folk say there’s a lack of “qualified” engineers, they don’t mean that there aren’t enough candidates with degrees. They mean that they do hundreds and hundreds of interviews in a year, and so few pass the interview. We don’t really care about your degree, other than as a good way to signal that you’re worth interviewing. Seriously – I and every other engineer at my company was regularly interviewing 3 candidates per week for years on end, and the only reason it was so low is because we had a company policy not to take up more engineering time than that.

    It’s not some sort of credential inflation or fetishization. We seriously don’t care which bootcamp or college you went to. Most of the time the engineer performing the interview hasn’t even seen your resume (that’s a job for the recruiter). Bootcamps put down an okay-to-sometimes-decent ground set of skills, and even if you’re not on the high end of that scale, there’s a startup that needs people who can slap together some React JS so they can have a responsive, scalable product selection page. Where you tend to really see the success stories out of bootcamps is engineers that start at lower-tier colleges and do a decent job, then climb the latter to more household names.

    • goldrushapple

      >They’d prefer to have all CS grads from Harvard and Stanford, but it turns out those are a very limited commodity.

      Is it because of just name prestige? Some of the best CS programs are within state universities.

      • Mike

        I was speaking specifically of software engineers. I don’t have any experience hiring Chemical Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, etc.

        Regarding whether or not it’s name prestige… not really. Other than Berkeley, and to a somewhat lesser extend the University of Washington (particularly in the Seattle area tech scene), there aren’t any public schools that carry nearly the weight of Stanford and Harvard (in that order) and outside of those two, MIT and perhaps Carnegie Mellon have similar consistent quality.

        It’s not that companies don’t believe that quality engineers come out of other schools – they know that they do and companies regularly recruit heavily from plenty of other places. It’s just that you can almost guarantee someone who graduated from Stanford’s CS department is going to have solid engineering skills, and similarly with a select few other schools. Great engineers come from NC State too, but so do good-to-mediocre engineers. The overall bar is higher at select schools, even though individuals at a wide variety of places are perfectly capable of being just as strong.

        Actually, the public university with the highest reputation in Silicon Valley might not even be Berkeley or U-Dub — I’d put good money on the University of Waterloo (in Canada). Seriously, Waterloo grads are _everywhere_ in the Valley tech scene. I know ~100 Canadians from the various companies I’ve worked at, and 100% of them went to Waterloo. It’s insane. If you meet a Canadian in San Francisco, chances are they went to college at Waterloo and are in tech now.

        • goldrushapple

          >Great engineers come from NC State too, but so do good-to-mediocre
          engineers. The overall bar is higher at select schools, even though
          individuals at a wide variety of places are perfectly capable of being
          just as strong.

          Of course, given that state universities are land grant there will be a wider variety of skills. I would guess that the good and exceptional are the ones that get the interview and later the job. Unless places like Google have experienced (hypothetically) NC State grads performing mediocre when they looked good on paper and in the interview I don’t see much reason for the hesitation. It would make complete sense to go back and make X university a target school.